They're too young to fight, too young to fire a weapon. But that doesn't mean they've been spared from the front lines.
"Children are increasingly being put directly in harm's way as they are being recruited by armed groups and forces," Save the Children said. "There have even been reports that children as young as eight have been used as human shields."
A recent U.N. report echoes this finding, saying government and rebel forces have recruited boys as young as 12.
No school to go to
Ten-year-old Noura said she loved going to school. But like thousands of students, now there is no school to attend.
"I stopped going to school when the shelling started. It wasn't safe," Noura told the aid group. "I feel sad that my school was burned because my school reminds me of my friends."
More than 2,000 schools across the country have been damaged, with many more turned into emergency shelters, the group said.
Any way out
Save the Children called for the U.N. Security Council to unite on a plan that will bring an end to the civil war.
But two years of U.N. diplomacy, negotiations and chronic stalemates at the Security Council have so far failed to produce an effective solution in Syria.
Earlier this year, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad announced a plan to resolve the conflict, which included national dialogue and a new constitution that would be put up for a public referendum.
But there's a major caveat: Al-Assad said he refuses to deal with "terrorists," a term the government often uses to describe the opposition seeking to end 42 years of al-Assad family rule.
Similarly, opposition members have said they will not work directly with al-Assad's "criminal" government, nor will they accept any solution that doesn't involve the president's departure.
"We don't know who is right and who is wrong, but I know we civilians are paying the price," a mother named Hiba said.
"I just wanted to keep my children safe. If I die, it is fine ... but not my children."