In the 12 years immediately after the end of slavery – a period known as Reconstruction – our nation was handed a rare opportunity for racial reconciliation unlike ever before and, simply put, we blew it.  Lost in our 150–year history – going back to the last days of the Civil War – was the desire for racial reconciliation; replaced by the fallout of decades of racism and bigotry that still hovers over this nation like a toxic cloud of radioactive waste.  

But there is one particularly dark moment in American history that’s worth taking a closer look.  It ultimately led to what is best known as "40 acres and a mule" that was promised to recently freed slaves. That moment also has an amazing connection to everyone living here in Jacksonville, especially north of the St. Johns River...

40 Acres and A Mule...How About a Jim Crow Instead?

Article by Richard Cuff