His symbolic Fisherman's Ring and papal seal will be "destroyed" by means of making scratch marks so that they can no longer be used to seal documents, said Vatican spokesman Federico Lombardi.
Benedict's final tweet, sent at 11 a.m. ET from his @Pontifex account, read: "Thank you for your love and support. May you always experience the joy that comes from putting Christ at the centre of your lives."
The account will remain dormant until the next pope decides whether he wants to use it, the Vatican said.
Benedict entered his final day as pontiff with an unusual act -- a pledge of "unconditional obedience" and respect to whoever takes up the reins after his dramatic resignation later.
His promise came in a last meeting Thursday morning with the cardinals who will pick his successor, almost certainly from within their own ranks.
"I will continue to serve you in prayer, in particular in the coming days, so that you may be touched by the Holy Spirit in the election of a new pope," he said.
His words appeared designed to answer concerns that the presence of a former pontiff might lead to confusion or competing loyalties once the new pope is installed.
Benedict told the cardinals it was a "joy to walk with you" during his nearly eight tumultuous years at the head of all Catholics worldwide.
Another Vatican spokesman, the Rev. Thomas Roscia, said he believed 144 cardinals had attended Benedict XVI's farewell to them as pope. That includes both cardinal-electors, who are under the age of 80, and cardinals who are not eligible to vote for the next pope.
Not all the 115 cardinals eligible to vote were present, Lombardi said.
Two cardinals are suffering ill health, making their attendance uncertain, although arrangements may be made to enable them to vote, Roscia said.
The Vatican has said it wants to have the next pontiff in place in time for the week of services leading up to Easter Sunday on March 31.
A series of meetings to set the timetable for the conclave -- the closed-door assembly to elect a new pope -- will begin early next week, said Lombardi. The cardinals will receive the formal invitation to attend on Friday.
The meetings, known as general congregations, bring together all the cardinals, electors and non-electors, before the conclave begins. They are intended to be an opportunity to reflect on the current state of the church.
In their meeting Thursday morning, the cardinals gave Benedict a standing ovation, and then one by one each met Benedict to say a final few words.
Cardinal Daniel DiNardo of Texas said at a news conference held with fellow U.S. cardinals that it had been "a very moving moment with Pope Benedict."
"There was a note of sadness in saying farewell to this man who has been our spiritual father for the last eight years," said Cardinal Sean O'Malley of Boston.
"At the same time it was very edifying to see how much people love him and respect him."