Debate on the legislation was emotional at times.
Sen. Beth Bye spoke for five minutes, noting it was the same amount of time that the shooting lasted at Sandy Hook Elementary School.
She recalled how parents hoping to be reunited with their children were directed to a building near the school after the shootings, but "20 of those parents came back with a state trooper and not their child."
Some people questioned whether the law deals enough with the state's mental health system, a reference to the presumed mental condition of the shooter.
The legislation allows school districts to require "mental health first aid" training for school personnel and creates a task force to examine the state's mental health system. Additionally, it alters state insurance regulations to beef up mental health care coverage.
Reassuring gun owners
Republican House Minority Leader Larry Cafero, a member of the bipartisan task force that drafted the bill, reassured gun owners they wouldn't lose their guns or ammunition magazines, "so long as they follow our rules and register," he said.
"Are there tighter restrictions on their use, etc.? Absolutely. We also were able to see as part of this legislation the repeal of early release for violent criminals."
Families of the children slain in Newtown were disappointed the larger-capacity magazines were grandfathered in. They asked had for an across-the-board ban.
Malloy had backed the broader ban, saying banning the future sale of high-capacity magazines "would not be an effective solution."
But Wilson said the magazine limits will have no impact on crime.
"It is ludicrous to expect people that have firearms capable of holding 15 rounds to only load 10 rounds inside of them," he objected. "Do criminals really care about these laws?"
The move in Connecticut comes as the nation is in a heated gun debate.
President Barack Obama has been waging a public pressure campaign for tougher gun laws, an effort he continued Wednesday in Colorado -- site of two of the nation's most notorious mass shootings, in 1999 at Columbine High School and last year at an Aurora movie theater.
"There doesn't have to be a conflict between protecting our citizens and protecting our Second Amendment rights," Obama said.
Obama is fighting intense opposition from the National Rifle Association, which sees restrictions as unconstitutional and ineffective.
Lawmakers in 36 states also have proposed legislation that would negate federal gun control initiatives, according to the non-profit Sunlight Foundation Reporting Group.
Despite a spike in support for the strictest gun control initiatives in the immediate aftermath of the Newtown shootings, a CNN/ORC International poll this month found support for major restrictions may be fading.
The poll, released March 18, found that while a majority of Americans favored major restrictions shortly after the shootings, that support had fallen to 43 percent.