Kadyrbayev is not currently enrolled at the University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth.
He is charged with obstruction of justice and could face up to five years in prison and $250,000 in fines if found guilty.
Kazakhstan's foreign ministry said it was offering consular services to both Kadyrbayev and Tazhayakov. "We would like to emphasize that our citizens did not receive charges of involvement in the organization of the Boston Marathon bombings. They were charged with destroying evidence," the ministry said in a statement.