A head of the interim government will be named within 10 days, according to a statement released Friday by the group at the conclusion of a two-day meeting in Cairo.
The announcement by the coalition comes as see-saw battles between government forces and rebels have reached a near draw in the civil war, with neither side gaining ground in recent months.
The fighting has spilled from the countryside into city centers, with rebels and government forces reportedly clashing in the capital city of Damascus as well the country's largest city of Aleppo.
The opposition Local Coordination Committees of Syria said 213 people killed in fighting across the country Friday. Of the casualties, 92 were killed in the opposition stronghold of Aleppo, according to the group.
CNN cannot confirm casualties as access to the country has been severely restricted.
The deaths in Aleppo, according to the opposition, occurred when Scud missiles were fired Friday by government forces at rebel strongholds in predominantly residential neighborhoods.
The missile attack came a day after a series of car bombs targeted government buildings in the capital city of Damascus, including the headquarters of al-Assad's ruling party, and left at least 53 people dead and more than 230 wounded.
The United Nations recently estimated 70,000 people died in the fighting in Syria.